Poison Hunters


1.         Grant, T. and M.C. Ardila-Robayo. 2002. A new species of Colostethus (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental of Columbia. Herpetologica 58(2): 252-260.

2.         Daly, J.W., G.B. Brown, M. Mensah-Dwumah, and C.W. Myers. 1978. Classification of skin alkaloids from Neotropical poison-dart frogs (Dendrobatidae). Toxicon 16: 163-188.

3.            Myers, C.W., J.W. Daly, and B. Malkin. 1978. A dangerously toxic new frog (Phyllobates) used by Emberá Indians of western Colombia, with discussion of blowgun fabrication and dart poisoning. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 161(2):309-365.

4.         Daly, J.W. et al. 2002. Bioactive alkaloids of frog skin: Combinatorial bioprospecting reveals that pumiliotoxins have an arthropod source. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99(22): 13996-14001.

5.            Solomons, T.W. 1988. in Organic Chemistry. 4th Ed. (Wiley and Sons, New York)

6.         Daly, J.W., C.W. Myers, and N. Whittaker. 1987. Further classification of skin alkaloids from the Neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), with a general survey of toxic/noxious substances in the amphibia. Toxicon 25(10): 1023-1095.

7.            Heatwole, H. ed. 1994. Amphibian Biology: Vol. 1 The Integument (Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd., NSW Australia).

8.         Daly, J.W., C.W. Myers, J.E. Warnick, and E.X. Albuquerque. 1980. Levels of batrachotoxin and lack of sensitivity to its action in poison-dart frogs (Dendrobatidae). Science 208: 1383-1385.

9.            Myers, C.W. and J.W. Daly. 1983. Dart-Poison Frogs. Sci. Am. 248(2): 120-133.

10.       Daly, J.W. et al. 1992. Variability in alkaloid profiles in Neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae): Genetic versus environmental determinants. Toxicon 30(8): 887-898.

11.       Daly, J.W. et al. 1994. An uptake system for dietary alkaloids in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). Toxicon 32(6): 657-663.

12.       Daly, J.W. et al. 1994. Dietary source for skin alkaloids of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae)? J. of Chem. Ecol. 20(4): 943-955.

13.       Daly, J.W. et al. 2000. Arthropod-Frog connection: Decahydroquinoline and pyrrolizidine alkaloids common to microsympatric myrmicine ants and dendrobatid frogs. J. of Chem. Ecol. 26(1): 73-85.

14.       Daly, J.W., R.J. Highet, and C.W. Myers. 1984. Occurrence of skin alkaloids in  non-dendrobatid frogs from Brazil (Bufonidae), Australia (Myobtachidae) and Madagascar (Mantellinae). Toxicon 22(6): 905-919.

Daly, J.W. et al. 1986. Alkaloids from dendrobatid frogs: structures of two Ω-hydoxy congeners of 3-butyl-5-propylindolizidine and occurrence of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines and a 2,6-disubstituted piperidine. J. of Nat. Prod. 49(2): 265-280.

15.             Garraffo, H.M., et al. 1993. Alkaloids from bufonid toads (Melanophyriniscus): Decahydroquinolines, pumiliotoxins and homopumiliotoxins, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and quinolizidines. J. of Nat. Prod. 56(3): 357-373.

16.            Garraffo, H.M., et al. 1993. Alkaloids in Madagascan frogs (Mantella): Pumiliotoxins, indolizidines, quinolizidines, and pyrrolizidines. J. of Nat. Prod. 56(7): 1016-1038.

17.       Daly, J.W. et al. 1994. First Occurrence of tetrodotoxin in a dendrobatid frog (Colostethus inguinalis), with further reports for the bufonid genus Atelopus. Toxicon 32(3): 279-285.

Other References

Myers, C.W. and J. W. Daly. 1976. Preliminary evaluation of skin toxins and vocalizations in taxonomic and evolutionary studies of poison-dart frogs (Dendrobatidae). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 157(3):173-262.

Mensah-Dwumah, M. and J.W. Daly. 1978. Pharmacological activity of alkaloids from poison-dart frogs (Dendrobatidae). Toxicon 16: 189-194.

Neuwirth, M., J. W. Daly, C.W. Myers and L.W. Tice. 1979. Morphology of the granular secretory glands in skin of Poison-dart frogs (Dendrobatidae). Tissue & Cell 11(4): 755-771.

Myers, C.W. and J.W. Daly. 1979. A name for the poison frog of Cordillera Azul, Eastern Peru, with notes on its biology and skin toxins (Dendrobatidae). Am. Mus. Novitates 2674: 1-24

Myers, C.W. and J.W. Daly. 1980. Taxonomy and ecology of Dendrobates bombetes, a new Andean poison frog with new skin toxins. Am. Mus. Novitates 2692: 1-23

Edwards, M.W., J.W. Daly, and C.W. Myers. 1988. Alkaloids from a Panamanian frog Dendrobates speciosus: Identification of pumiliotoxin-A and allopumiliotoxin class alkaloids, 3,5-disubstituted indolizidines, 5-substituted 8-methylindolizidines, and a 2-methyl-6-nonyl-4-hydroxypiperidine. J. of Nat. Prod. 51(6): 1188-1197.

Jain, P. et al. 1995. A new subclass of alkaloids from a dendrobatid poison frog: a structure for deoxypumiliotoxin 251H. . J. of Nat. Prod. 58(1): 100-104.

Garraffo, H.M., P. Jain, T.F. Spande, and J.W. Daly. 1997. Alkaloid 223A: The first trisubstituted indolizidine from dendrobatid frogs. J. of Nat. Prod. 60: 2-5.

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